Story: Pānapa, Wiremu Nētana

Page 1 - Panapa, Wiremu Netana

Panapa, Wiremu Netana

1898–1970

Nō Ngāti Ruanui, nō Te Rarawa; he pīhopa Mihinare

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Manuka Henare , ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata RauKo te wāhanga 4, 1998

Ko Wiremu Nētana Pānapa te pīhopa tuarua o Aotearoa. Ko tōna īngoa aroha ko Barney. I whānau a ia ki Te Ahikiwi, i te raki o Tākiwira (Dargaville), i te 7 o Hune i te tau 1898. He mea hopu tōna koroua, a Pānapa Hōhāpata o Ngāti Ruanui, e Ngāti Whātua i ngā pakanga i te rohe o Taranaki i ngā tau whakapaunga atu o te tekau tau atu i 1820, ā, haria atu ana ki Te Tai Tokerau. Nō muri mai, ka moea e ia a Ngātōwai Teao (Te Ao) Mamaku – ko Rīpeka Hōhāpata anō tētahi o ōna īngoa – o Ngāti Whātua, ka taki noho ki Te Ahikiwi. Ko tā rāua tama ko Nētana Te Kopa Pānapa, he kaiahu whenua, i moe i a Ngāpeka Mereana (Marion) Maihi o Te Rarawa me Ngāti Kahu. Ka hua, ka tini i a rāua te whenua, tekau mā rua rawa ā rāua tamariki. Ko te tamaiti tuawhā i iriiria ko Wiremu Pēpene. Nō muri ka haria e ia ko te īngoa o tōna pāpā, ko Wiremu Nētana hei īngoa mōna. Ko tōna whaea ko Ngāpeka – ko Mereana rānei – he wahine pūmau ki ngā tikanga Māori, he wahine kakama hoki i roto i ngā mahi a te Hāhi.

I kuraina a Wiremu ki te kura o Maropiu, nō muri iho, ka haere ki Tīpene (St Stephen's Native Boys' School) i Panēra (Parnell). Nā tōna koroua a ia i whakahau ki te pānui i te Paipera, ā, nāna hoki i arataki atu ki te mahi mā te Hāhi Mihinare. Ka uru nei ia ki te Kāreti o Te Rau Kahikatea (Te Rau Theological College) i Tūranga (Gisborne), ka eke atu ia ki te komiti whakahaere i te nūpepa Māori nei, i Te Kōpara. Ka riro mai i a ia tana tohu whakaakoranga atua i te Kāreti o Hoani Te Kaihauhau (St John's College) i Ākarana (Auckland), ā, ko ia rā te tauira Māori tuatahi ki te puta i tērā kāreti. Nō te tau 1921 i whakawahia ia hei rīkona, ā, hei pirihi atu hoki i te tau 1923.

Kotahi tau i muri mai, i te 30 o Hānuere i Te Kūiti, ka moea e ia a Agnes Waikeria Anihana (Anderson) – ko Bella tētahi o ōna īngoa – o Ngāti Maniapoto, he tamaiti whakaangi nā Te Puea Hērangi ki te taha ki tōna whaea. Tokowhitu ā rāua tamariki; tokowhā ngā tāne, tokotoru ngā wāhine.

I Te Kūiti a Pānapa e mahi ana atu i te tau 1923 ki te tau 1926, kātahi ka neke atu ia ki Kaikohe i te tau 1926 ki 1932. He tangata i rangona nuitia mō tōna kaha ki te kauhau. Mai i te tau 1923 ki 1933, he mema ia nō te Kaunihera o Te Wairoa (Wairoa Māori Council). Ka taka ki te tau 1927, ko ia tētahi o ngā tāngata i tae ki te hui whiriwhiri ko wai hei kaiwhakakī i te tūranga pīhopa Māori. I te tau 1928 ka tūtaki ia ki a T. W. Rātana i Kaikohe; whiua atu ana e Pānapa tana pātai mō te tika o Rātana kia tū mai hei kaiārahi whakapono, he mea whakapātari rawa e ia ki te haka.

Nō te tau 1930, i whakatūria a Pānapa hei mihinare Māori mō te pīhopatanga, ā, i te tau 1932, ko ia te mihinare Māori tuatahi mō Tāmaki-makau-rau (Auckland). I te tīmatanga o tēnei o āna mahi, he tokoiti noa te Māori ki te rohe o Tāmaki-makau-rau. Heoi anō, ka noho, tere ana te piki haere o te tokomaha o te Māori e hūnuku ana ki ngā tāone. Hohoro tonu tāna kite i ngā uauatanga e tū mai ana mō te pīhopatanga. Ka puta te reo whakaaraara ki ngā kaihautū o te Hāhi hei whakatikatikatia i ngā huarahi e ngata ai ngā hiahia o te iwi Māori. I te tau 1937 ka riro ko ia hei kaiārai mō ngā Māori o Ōrākei i ngā whakapae a ngā nūpepa, mō ngā moni i utua rā mō ngā whenua o Ōrākei. I uru atu hoki a Pānapa ki ngā raruraru mō te nohonga a te Māori i runga i ngā whenua o te Hāhi kua oti kē rā te koha atu ki te Karauna. I te hounga atu o te Ope Taua 28 (Māori) o Aotearoa (28th New Zealand (Māori) Battalion) ki tō rātou puni i te tau 1940, ka riro ko Pānapa tō rātou minita tuatahi i Niu Tīreni nei, e whā tau te roa. Ka tae ki te tau 1944 ka whakatūria ia hei minita mō te rohe Māori o Ōhinemutu. Kāti, mai i te tau 1947 ki 1951 i noho ia ki Taupō mahi ai.

I te aranga o te komiti whakahou i te Paipera Māori, i tino whakaaetia me whai wāhi te Māori ki te mahi nei ka tika, ka uru atu a Pānapa hei mema mai i te tau 1946 ki te tau 1952. Ka haria ngā hui a tēnei komiti nei ki ngā marae o te motu. Ko te aronga e whāia ana e rātou, ko te puta o te tānga hou o te Paipera hei tauira tino tōtika tonu mō te reo Māori, me te whakahoki mai anō i te reka o te waiata, i te tangi, i te whiti, me te rangirangi o te reo ki roto i te Paipera. Nō mua tata atu i te Kirihimete o te tau 1949 i oti ai te whakamāori i te Paipera, ā, nō te 1952 rā anō i tāia ai. I te wā e whakahoutia ana te Paipera, ka whakanohoia a Pānapa hei mema mutunga kore mō te Rōpū Paipera o te Kotahitanga o Ingarangi me ngā Whenua o Tauiwi (British and Foreign Bible Society).

Ka mate nei a Pīhopa Pererika Ākuhata Pēneti (Frederick Augustus Bennett), ka whakatūria ko Pānapa hei pīhopa tuarua mō Aotearoa, i te tau 1951. I Ahuriri (Napier) i te Whare Karakia Nui o Hoani Te Kaikauhau (Cathedral Church of St John), tōna whakatapunga i te 24 o Ākuhata. I reira ka huaina e ia tētahi whakataukī Māori, hei kupu whakarite māna i tōna tūmanako mō te whakamānu aituā kore i te waka o te pīhopatanga. Mau tonu a ia ki taua kōrero. Ahakoa te ngau o te mate, i pūmau tonu a ia ki te awhi i ana kāhui. Ka haeretia e ia te nuku o te whenua, ki te whakapai i ngā whare nui me ngā marae o te motu, ki te huaki i ngā hui, ki te whakahaere i ngā karakia i ngā tangihanga me ngā hui whakamaumaharatanga.

Taupatupatu ana ngā whakaaro o Pānapa ki ōna tūranga e rua; ki tōna tū hei pīhopa mō Aotearoa, me tōna tū hei kaiāwhina noa iho mō te pīhopatanga o Waiapu. Kua toka kē hoki ki roto ki a ia ngā whakahau a tōna koroua, a ōna mātua, a te iwi o Te Ahikiwi, kia Māori tonu ngā mahi i roto anō i tō rātou whare karakia. Ko te mutunga atu e ai ki ōna whakaaro o te āhua tonu o te tupu nei o te hapori Karaitiana, ahakoa ko wai, ko te tū motuhake o te Hāhi Mihinare Māori me tōna mana whakahaere, ōna tikanga, me tōna kawa. I te mea ko ia te pīhopa o Aotearoa, me haere ia ki te kauhau ki ngā Māori ahakoa ki hea. Ēngari i tua atu i te rohe o Waiapu, mā te whakaae rawa a ngā pīhopa o ērā atu rohe hāhi e taea ai e ia te haere ki aua rohe. Uaua ana tana whakaū i āna mahi minita ki te rohe o Ākarana i te kiriweti o te pīhopa o taua rohe ki a ia. Pākatokato ana hoki te mamae ki a rātou ko tōna iwi. Ko tāna whakataukī whakatoi mōna ko te 'pīhopa takeo i te mamae' o te Hāhi, arā, ehara ia i te pīhopa 'suffragan' ēngari ko te pīhopa 'suffering'.

Ka tono a Pānapa kia whakawhānuitia atu te rohe o tōna mana, kia nui kē atu i tō Pēneti. Kāti, ko tētahi mate hoki, he ngākau kore nō ētahi o ngā pīhopa Pākehā, ki ana māharahara mō te āhua o ngā Mihinare Māori. He wā uaua te wā takahuri haere atu nei mō Pānapa. Ko te ia o taua wā tonu me whakauru mai ngā Mihingare Māori ki roto ki te rōpū whakahaere matua o te Hāhi. Kore rawa hoki i tutuki pai ngā mānukanuka mō te āhua o ngā mahi i waenganui i ngā Pākehā me ngā Māori i te wā e pīhopa ana a Pānapa. I te mutunga o tāna mahi, ka puta ngā tūmanako o Ātipīhopa Norman Lesser – manukura o Aotearoa – ki te wā e whakakorea noatia ai te pīhopatanga o Aotearoa, ki te wā hoki e kore ai e riro ko te iwi karanga kē o te tangata te tikanga hei whakatū pīhopa.

Ahakoa ēnei uauatanga katoa, mārō tonu te haere a Pānapa i te wā e whakatikatika ana te Hāhi i āna whakahaere. Pūmau tonu te whakaaro o Pānapa ki te wāhi ki te Māori me te wahine i roto i te Hāhi, tae atu ki ngā raruraru i toko ake, ka mahue nei te whakapono, whai kē ana i ngā tikanga o te ao, me te noho hoki a te Māori i ngā tāone. Mai i ngā tau i tīmata ia ki te minita he whakahau tonu tana mahi i ngā wāhine Māori ki te whakauruuru mai ki te Rōpū o ngā Whāea (Mothers' Union) i te mea ko ngā tikanga a tērā rōpū he ako i ngā tamariki kia anga atu ki ngā mahi a te Atua, me te hāpai hoki i te tapu o te moe a te tāne rāua ko te wahine. Mai i te tekau tau atu i 1930, i te tūnga o ngā peka ki Te Tai Tokerau nāna nei i akiaki, mātua tīmata te whakauru a ngā wāhine Māori ki tēnei whakahaere. I mau tonu ia ki ngā mahi a ngā wāhine tae noa ki te mutunga o āna mahi minita. He auau tonu tana haere ki ngā hui a te Rōpū o ngā Whāea. He tangata i anga ia ki ngā mahi a te rangatahi Māori, nāna i whakakīkī te mahi whakatūtū kapa haka mō rātou. I ngā Hui Amorangi a ngā Mihinare Māori o ia tau, puta ana i a ia ōna mānukanuka mō te rangatahi.

Ko tētahi mea nui ki a ia ko te rourou a te Māori mō te whakakotahitanga i te ao Karaitiana hei rākau māna i roto i ngā mahi a te Hāhi. Ko ia tētahi o ngā tino mema o te wāhanga Māori o te Kaunihera Hāhi o Aotearoa (National Council of Churches of New Zealand), ko ia hoki te kaiwhakahaere i ētahi o ngā hui nui a taua kaunihera. Nā ēnei kaupapa ka rangona nuitia a ia i te motu, ka piki tōna mana manukura, nui noa ake i tōna mana i roto i te Hāhi Mihinare. Ki a ia ko tēnei wāhanga Māori tētahi o ngā tino kaupapa e aro atu ana ki te oranga o te Māori. Tohua ana ko ia hei waha kōrero mō ngā Hāhi Karaitiana Māori.

I tua atu i ngā mahi a te Hāhi, he haere tonu tāna mahi ki ngā hui ā-tau a te Rōpū Wāhine Toko i te Ora (Māori Women's Welfare League). Ki tāna titiro, ko tēnei rōpū tētahi o ngā kaupapa nui i toko ake hei ārahi i te iwi Māori. I tautokona hoki e ia te aranga ake o te Kaunihera Māori o Niu Tīreni mō ngā Kaiwhakahaere ā-Iwi (New Zealand Māori Council of Tribal Executives). I muri nei ka kīia ko te Kaunihera Māori o Niu Tīreni (New Zealand Māori Council). Ko te whakapono tonu hoki o Pānapa ko te whai i te mātauranga tonu tētahi o ngā tino kaupapa mā te Māori. I tino tirohia e ia ngā nekeneke o tētahi rōpū tauira Māori i tīmata te haere ki tāwāhi ako ai i ngā whare wānanga. I te tau 1961 ko ia tētahi o ngā kaiwhakaara i te Kaupapa Mātauranga mō te Iwi Māori (Māori Education Foundation).

Nā Pānapa anō hoki i tautoko te reo o ngā kaiārahi Māori o ngā Hāhi e hiahia ana kia whakarerekēhia ngā ture waipiro. Kāore a ia i tautoko kia aukatia anō ko ngā Māori anake, ēngari ka tohe kia kaha ake ngā komiti whakahaere ā-iwi ki te whakatinana i tō rātau mana. Ahakoa tana kauhau kaua e kai waipiro, kei reira anō a ia e kī ana kei te Māori tonu te rongoā mō te mate kai waipiro. I te tau 1960, ka whakahē ia i te kore o te Māori e uru ki te tīma whutupaoro o te motu (All Blacks) i haere rā ki Āwherika ki te Tonga. Ko ia hoki te pou o te petihana a ngā ūpoko o ngā hunga whakapono, mātauranga, tōrangapū, uniana mahi, hākinakina me ngā wāhine, ki te Pāremata kia hangaia he ture e tino ōrite ai te Pākehā ki te Māori i raro i te Tiriti o Waitangi.

I tūtaki a Pānapa ki a Kuini Riripeti Te Tuarua i te pōhiri i Rotorua i Hānuere o te tau 1954. I mua i te tini – 10,000 ngā tāngata me te 1,000 anō hoki o ngā kaihaka – ka ūhia e ia te Kuini ki te korowai. I muri mai, i te pōhiri ki te Kuini i Waitangi ka tūtaki anō rāua, ka tū ko ia hei waha kōrero mō te iwi Māori. I taua tau anō ka whakawahia a ia ki te tohu CBE. I tūtaki anō rāua ko te Kuini i te tau 1963, i te rā whakanui o Waitangi. I te tau 1966 ka puta ko tā te Māori whakahōnore i te tānga o tōna whakaahua ki te uhi o Te Ao Hou, he pukapuka maheni Māori. Koinei te 45 o ngā tau o tōna tūātanga hei pirihi.

Nō te tau 1968, ka heke mai ia i tana tūnga pīhopa, ka tipuheke haere nei tōna ora. Kua hipa noa atu tōna pakeke i ngā tau e tika ana mōna hei whakatā, ēngari nā te kore moni whakatā mā ngā pīhopa Māori i mahi haere tonu ia (nō te wā rawa i a Pīhopa Manuhuia Pēneti kātahi ka whai pūtea). I mate a Wiremu Nētana Pānapa i Te Papa-i-ōia (Palmerston North) i te 10 o Hune i te tau 1970. Ka mahue pani iho ko āna tama tokowhā rātou ko āna tamāhine tokotoru. Kua mate kē tana wahine a Agnes i te tau 1950. Nā runga i tētahi kupu oati ki tana kaiakopono, ki tona hoa, hoa mahi rānei, ki a Mutu Kapa, i tanumia ia i tana taha ki te urupā o te Whare Karakia o Hēmi Te Kaihauhau (St James's Church) e pātata ana ki te marae whakamaharatanga o Te Puea (Te Puea Memorial Marae), i Māngere.