Early days: law and enforcement
The reach of government in the Bay of Plenty, with its mainly Māori population, was limited in the 1840s and 1850s. The outbreak of conflict between the Crown and the Māori King movement changed this, and hundreds of soldiers were deployed early in 1864. In 1867 the soldiers gave way to an armed constabulary, combining both military and policing roles, and in 1886 to a regular police force. Magistrates at Tauranga, Maketū and Ōpōtiki reported on Māori affairs to the Native Department, as well as handling regular civil and criminal cases.
When the provinces were abolished in 1876, they were replaced by a variety of new local authorities which prospered and grew as the region developed. At the regional level, a Bay of Plenty united council was first established in 1981, succeeded in 1989 by a regional council: Environment Bay of Plenty. This took over catchment boards and regional transport. Acknowledging the lack of Māori representation in a region with a Māori population of around 24%, Environment Bay of Plenty introduced two Māori constituencies in its 2004 elections. These provided two of the 12 councillors.
There have been a number of changes in the region’s electorate make-up: before 1907 the name and boundaries of the electoral district changed several times; from 1908 the number of electorates varied between two and four; and from 1972 the Tauranga parliamentary electorate was confined to the city. In 2005 the Bay of Plenty comprised four electorates under the proportional voting system introduced in 1993.
With the formation of the Māori electorates in 1867, Tauranga, with its strong association with the King movement, was placed in Western Māori. The rest of the Bay, whether of Te Arawa or Mataatua affiliation, came within Eastern Māori. In 1954 the Eastern Māori electorate was extended to include the whole of the Bay of Plenty. From 1993 the Bay of Plenty was in the Waiariki electorate (except for the area from Waihī Beach north, which was in the Tainui electorate).
State schools, 1900s–1970s
The first public secondary schools in the Bay of Plenty were district high schools, established in the 1900s: Tauranga (1900), Whakatāne (1920), Ōpōtiki (1922) and Te Puke (1924).
Tauranga College was established in 1946. In 1958 it was separated into girls’ and boys’ colleges. The same year Mt Maunganui College was founded. Whakatāne High School dates from 1950, Ōpōtiki College from 1953, Te Puke High School from 1954 and Katikati College from 1966.
The 1960s and 1970s saw more secondary schools established: Edgecumbe College (1962), Kawerau College (1963), Ōtūmoetai (1965) at Tauranga, and Trident at Whakatāne (1973).
In the 1980s local government, education and health were all restructured. New departures in health and education allowed many Māori organisations to provide services. Among the education providers are Te Whare Wānanga o Awanuiarangi, a significant tertiary institution in the country as a whole. Anamata is a Ngāi Tūhoe training establishment operating in both Whakatāne and Tāneatua.