Story: Kiwi

The flightless, nocturnal kiwi is an oddity, and perhaps an unlikely choice for a national symbol. But the round body, long beak and short legs invite curiosity and affection – and it’s an easy bird to draw. It appears everywhere, on coins, stamps, shoe polish, T-shirts and websites. And yet few New Zealanders have ever seen these threatened birds in the wild.

Full story by Jock Phillips
Main image: Stewart Island tokoeka

The Short Story

A quick, easy summary
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Features

Kiwi are found only in New Zealand. With tiny stubs for wings, these funny-looking birds can’t fly, and have other mammal-like features:

  • feathers more like shaggy hair
  • cat-like whiskers
  • short, strong legs.

Like hedgehogs, they come out at night, sniffing out worms, insects and fruit. They will fight fiercely to defend their ground.

Eggs and chicks

The kiwi egg is huge, and females lay only one at a time. Kiwi parents don’t look after their chicks once they have hatched. Predators such as stoats, dogs and cats often eat the baby birds.

Species

There are five species of kiwi: brown kiwi, tokoeka, rowi, great spotted kiwi and little spotted kiwi. Each species lives in a different area.

Conservation

Once there were about 12 million kiwi, but because predators eat so many chicks, there are now fewer than 100,000. The Department of Conservation is helping to build up kiwi numbers. It takes eggs from the wild to predator-free zones such as an island, where the chicks hatch and are safe. When they are big enough, they are returned to the wild.

People and kiwi

Māori always thought kiwi were special. They called them the hidden bird of Tāne, the god of the forest, and they still treasure cloaks made with kiwi feathers.

The kiwi shape is easy to draw and has often been used in trademarks – for shoe polish, medicines, insurance and other products. It is also used on coins and stamps. In the early 1900s, cartoonists began to use the kiwi as a symbol for New Zealand. Then in the First World War, people began to call New Zealand soldiers Kiwis, and the name has stayed, even though most New Zealanders have never seen a real kiwi in the wild.

You've read the short story, now
How to cite this page:

Jock Phillips. 'Kiwi', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, updated 30-Jan-13
URL: http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/kiwi