Story: Ahuwhenua – Māori land and agriculture
Māori quickly adopted the plants and animals Europeans brought to New Zealand, and ran a thriving agricultural trade. But new laws forced Māori into individual land ownership and drastically affected tribes’ ability to farm. Āpirana Ngata encouraged tribes to form trusts and incorporations to manage farms. Many owners may not live in their homelands, but are still interested in how they are managed.
Full story by Tanira Kingi
Main image: Māori dairy farmer, near Hamilton, 1969
The Short Story
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Māori cultivated gardens around New Zealand in the centuries after they arrived. They grew crops that their ancestors had carried across the Pacific: kūmara (sweet potato), taro, hue (gourds) and uwhi (yams).
European plants and animals
Explorers and missionaries also brought plants and animals to New Zealand, and the first plough arrived in 1820. Māori quickly adopted European agriculture and began to run a thriving trade with settlers. Soon they were exporting crops such as potatoes and wheat.
Traditionally, Māori land was owned by the group, not by individuals. Continued occupation, known as ahi kā, the long-burning fires, linked people to particular areas.
The settler government made a law in 1862 to convert Māori land ownership into individual blocks with named owners. Over time, more and more people inherited title to land. People had part ownership of different pieces of land and had no way to develop them. Often land was sold because owners thought the situation was hopeless.
Ngāti Porou leader Āpirana Ngata played a big role in Māori farming in the 20th century, especially in his own tribal area. He encouraged land owners to join together and form trusts or incorporations to run farms. These organisations could get funds to develop land.
Sheep and dairy farming flourished on the East Coast – by 1927 there were around half a million sheep.
There are over 5,000 ahuwhenua (farming) trusts. They are popular because owners retain their title to the land. Ancestral land is important to Māori. It is their tūrangawaewae, their place to stand, which provides a sense of belonging. Although they may never live there, the land remains a symbol of their identity. Almost half of Māori land is held by trusts.
With land incorporations, owners become shareholders and receive dividends – 13.7% of Māori land is run by incorporations. Some are large scale: Parininihi Ki Waitōtara Incorporation in Taranaki runs a $50 million dairy farming operation.
One-fifth of Māori land is not managed by trusts or incorporations. Some of it is leased from the owners.
Contributing to the economy
Māori farm 720,000 hectares of land, and more than 15% of the country’s sheep and beef exports come from Māori-owned farms.