Story: Women and men
Wearing pink or blue, a skirt or trousers; picking up a netball or rugby ball, an apron or hammer; reading the Woman's Weekly or the sports pages – these are among the many things that New Zealanders have grown up with, as girls and boys learning how to be women and men. What they learned, however, has changed over the years. Gender, the social organisation of sexual difference, is part of New Zealand's history.
Full story by Charlotte Macdonald
Main image: Model family in model kitchen, 1960s
The Short Story
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Before 1840 most Europeans in New Zealand were men – whalers, sealers, adventurers and traders. More women arrived in the 1840s, but they were still a minority. Goldfields and remote areas were often mostly male. Subsidised passages to New Zealand were offered to encourage women to emigrate. Families were large, with six or more children.
Voters and mothers
In the 1880s women campaigned against alcohol, and for votes for women. They won the vote in 1893. Government policy encouraged women to be mothers and homemakers, and men to be workers and fathers. At school, girls and boys were taught subjects to prepare them for these roles.
Soldiers and sportsmen
The ideal New Zealand male was seen as physically strong and competitive, yet modest. Men showed these manly virtues in war and on the sports field. In the First World War almost 18,000 New Zealand men died. Men who were soldiers and women who stayed home had very different experiences in the war.
In the mid-20th century men and women mostly worked, socialised and were educated with their own sex. Radio programmes and magazines focused on the specific interests of women, or those of men. The welfare state supported women as mothers and housewives, and men as breadwinners supporting the family. The world of work was mostly seen as a men’s world. Men had a much wider range of jobs and higher pay than women.
War and suburbia
Over 200,000 men served in the armed forces in the Second World War. Many women took part in the New Zealand labour force, sometimes in jobs normally done by men. After the war large numbers of people married and settled down in the suburbs. Women raised children and looked after homes, while men worked full-time.
In the 1960s clothing changed. Some men grew longer hair and women wore miniskirts. The women’s liberation movement challenged many aspects of women’s position in society. More women joined the paid workforce, and the contraceptive pill gave women control over their fertility. Some men felt limited by the stereotype of the strong, silent New Zealand male.
In the early 2000s men and women had far more in common than in earlier times. However, men continued to earn more than women, and women still did much of the housework and childcare.