Story: Conscription, conscientious objection and pacifism
As long as New Zealand has been involved in wars, people have objected to fighting in them for political, religious or philosophical reasons. And they have often been punished for it.
Full story by Mark Derby
Main image: Conscientious objectors at Hautu Detention Camp, 1943
The Short Story
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Conscription is compulsory enlistment for military service. Conscription was first introduced in New Zealand in 1845, when able-bodied non-Māori men had to make themselves available for military training or service. Some European settlers refused to fight in wars between Māori and the government.
The First World War began in 1914, and conscription for non-Māori men was introduced in 1916. Men were selected by ballot. At first married men were not selected. Some Māori men were later also included.
Conscription was reintroduced during the Second World War (in 1940). A total of 312,000 men were conscripted.
There has been no conscription for New Zealand troops since the Second World War.
Conscientious objection to conscription
During both the First and Second world wars people could apply to be exempted from conscription as a conscientious objector – on political, religious or philosophical grounds. Most appeals were denied, and people who still refused to fight in the war were imprisoned. During the First World War some were severely punished. At the end of the wars some were denied voting rights for 10 years.
Conscientious objection to compulsory military training
For most of the period from 1909 to 1972 young men had to attend military training. People convicted for refusing the training could be held in prison camps. From 1949 people could appeal to the Conscientious Objection Committee to be exempted.
Conscientious objection to union membership
From 1936 until 1983 people generally had to belong to a union. People who objected could apply to a committee. Exemptions were usually granted.
The Moriori people who lived on the Chatham Islands had been pacifists (opposed to war and violence) for hundreds of years. Parihaka was a Māori community in Taranaki that practised pacifism.
A number of pacifist groups formed during the First and Second world wars. Many were based on Christian ideals, and some were women’s groups.
From the 1960s, with the threat of nuclear war, the peace movement became strong in New Zealand. In 1984 the government declared New Zealand the first officially anti-nuclear country in the developed world.