Story: Taupori Māori – Māori population change
Before Europeans arrived in New Zealand, Māori life expectancy was higher than that in Britain. But in the 19th century introduced diseases and land loss took a heavy toll on the Māori population, leading to dramatic predictions of their demise. However, things improved over the 20th century.
Full story by Ian Pool and Tahu Kukutai
Main image: Dancing at the Auckland Māori Community Centre
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Māori population before 1840
In the late 18th century there were probably about 100,000 Māori in New Zealand. Māori life expectancy was about 30 – higher than in Britain. Māori had high birth and death rates, so natural increase of the population was low.
After Pākehā arrived and settled in New Zealand, introduced diseases such as influenza and measles decimated the Māori population. Intertribal musket wars killed people, but fewer died than from disease. The loss of Māori land and resources also had a negative effect. Death rates increased and the birth rate fell because of disease and malnutrition. Child mortality was very high – of Māori girls born in the 1890s, 40% died before their first birthday. Some Pākehā believed that Māori would die out altogether.
In 1896 the Māori population reached a low of about 42,000.
In the early 20th century the Māori population began to increase. Community health programmes initiated by Māori doctors such as Māui Pōmare and Peter Buck helped improve life expectancy, and the birth rate rose. However, Māori still had high levels of poverty and malnutrition. They had lost their economic base, and had to find paid work to replace it – often seasonal employment in meat works or shearing.
Urbanisation and growth
After the Second World War many Māori moved to cities to find employment. By 1971, 71% of Māori lived in urban areas (compared with just 26% in 1945). It was one of the fastest urban transitions recorded anywhere before the 1970s. Māori death rates fell, and the birth rate remained high, so the population grew. Previously most Māori had worked in primary industries such as farming, but now many found jobs in manufacturing.
In the 1970s the Māori birth rate fell, as Māori women began using the contraceptive pill. In the 2000s things had improved socially and economically for Māori, but their life expectancy was still lower than that of Pākehā.
Since 1990 many Māori have moved overseas. In the 2006 Australian census almost 93,000 people said they had Māori ethnicity.