Māori oral tradition
From 1840 there had been many collectors of Māori oral traditions, but these accounts offered no agreement about a date of arrival, or who arrived, or the number of vessels, or the exact point of departure in Polynesia.
However, there were some points of agreement. One was that many of the collected traditions traced Māori arrivals to specific canoe landings, and that certain canoe names commonly recurred in certain regions. The landings were thought to have happened several hundred years earlier, rather than thousands. And there was considerable speculation that there was an inferior pre-Māori population that was overrun by the arrival of Māori.
Hawaiki – the homeland
Māori told early Europeans that their ancestors had sailed to New Zealand from Hawaiki, which is the name of their ancestral home. They placed it somewhere to the north-east of New Zealand. Today it is believed that the most likely region from which Polynesians came to New Zealand is the Southern Cook and Society islands.
A new interpreter: S. Percy Smith
Towards the end of the 19th century, questions about Polynesian origins and the coming of the Māori helped to foster an emergent sense of New Zealand identity. This required a heroic account of the country’s past, its likely triumphant destiny, and a way of interpreting the colonial encounter with Māori.
The man who gave New Zealand such a history was S. Percy Smith, surveyor general and co-founder and co-editor (with Edward Tregear) of the Polynesian Society and its journal. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Smith ‘tidied’ Māori oral tradition into a simple, coherent narrative.
The story of the Great Fleet
Smith’s account went as follows. In 750 AD the Polynesian explorer Kupe discovered an uninhabited New Zealand. Then in 1000–1100 AD, the Polynesian explorers Toi and Whātonga visited New Zealand, and found it inhabited by a primitive, nomadic people known as the Moriori. Finally, in 1350 AD a ‘great fleet’ of seven canoes – Aotea, Kurahaupō, Mataatua, Tainui, Tokomaru, Te Arawa and Tākitimu – all departed from the Tahitian region at the same time, bringing the people now known as Māori to New Zealand. These were advanced, warlike, agricultural tribes who destroyed the Moriori.